|About this site||Links||Assignment|
|Gymnosperms||Gymnosperms||Artificial Key to Families|
|Gymnosperms Lecture U. Maryland||Pinophyta||Gymnosperms Data Base|
|Gymnosperms Overview||Seed plants Links to many labeled images||Gymno 1|
125 look for
|Cycad Course outline Gymnosperms|
|?Living "Gymnopserm" Groups - comparison||?Survey
of Plant Kingdom
?click here or ?here
|Ginkgophyta - images||Ginkgophytes||Ginkgoales -|
|*Ginkgo - links to images|
|Ginkgo Tree Tree||Ginkgo - short shoots with seeds||Ginkgo - notes, links to images of sporangia|
|Ginkgo Leafy branch||Ginkgo leaf||leaf shapes - variations|
|Ginkgo - stem||Ginkgo - leaf||Ginkgo - microsporangium - labels|
|*Ginkgo - x.s. stem - labels||Ginkgo - spur shoot (winter)||Ginkgo - microsporangia|
|Ginkgo - branch + seeds||Ginkgo - tree + branch||*Ginkgo - seed - mouseover|
|Ginkgo- propagation||branch with ovules -||Ginkgo Ovules + leaves|
|male and female - male + female||Megasporangia - young||ripe seeds|
|Ginkgo - leaf fossil - Google images|
|?Cycadales||The Cycad Pages|| Cycadophyta
images U. Wisc.
Cycadophyta images U. Wisc.
|Cycas revolta ovules and sporophyll||Cycad cone||megasporophyll|
Zamia floridana Female - Strobilus
whole and l.s.
|Zamia- ovules ovules|
|Cycad - Cycas microsporophyll with microsporangia||Zamia ovule - section||cycad - leaf fossil|
|Welwitschia Habit||Welwitschia images with Grman text||Welwitschia links to images|
|Welwitschia - U. Wisc.|
|?Gnetales Ephaedra images at end|
|Gnetum - Google images||Gnetum - index of images|
|*Coniferophyta Coniferales||?Conifers Table - Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Taxaceae|
|Pinophyta||foto album||*Coniferophyta, Gnetophyta|
|PINE LIFE CYCLE|
|Pine Life Cycle - great links||Pine - life cycle, description with links||images -|
|Pinus images U. Wisc.||Pine - life cycle|
|Pine l.s. Male cone - labels||Branch with male cones|
|Pine Staminate cones||Pine Staminate cone l.s.|
|images - Pine microsporangiate||Pine pollen|
|Pine - l.s. staminate cone||Quiz with images|
|Pine pollen - 1000X||Pine pollen -||fresh pollen|
|Pine pollen - Google images||germinated pollen -|
|Pine female cone, young||Pinus nigra 1st year cone||Pine pollen tubes - labels|
|Ovulate cones young||dissected cone - ovules||**Ovuliferous scale - ovules|
|Pine Ovulate cone l.s.||Pine Ovuliferous scale - labels||l.s. ovule|
l.s. - labels
|Pine Pollen tube / archegonia|
|Pine Megasporangium||archegonium - labels||Images - scroll to coniferophyta|
|Pine Ovule / Megagametophyte - labels||Pine Archegonia - labels||Pine embryo - l.s.|
|Pine - fertilization||Megagametophyte and Embryo - with labels||Pine - Seed and seedlings|
|Seed dissected dissected||Pine l.s. seed - labels||seedling|
|Seedlings||Pinus seed - Google images|
|?Pine - fascicle + bract with labels||?Pinus staminate cone - l.s.||?Pine - x.s. pine needles|
links to photos
|trees of Oregon conifers
Links to images and descriptions
|Taxus - Yew||Juniperus -||Hemlock|
|Various conifers - U. Wisc.||conifer - Google images||Pinus - Google images|
I selected links that provide images of Gymnosperms similar to those observed in laboratory. Review the links as you prepare for lab and as you study for your lab exam.
Reminder: Bring one branch of a Conifer with cones with you to the Gymnosperm lab. Where to collect a Conifer branch with cones?
In lab you are asked to focus on the following:
- Sample the diversity of Cycads, Ginkgo, Gnetophyta and Conifers and learn to recognize the characteristics of each division.
- Examine in detail the stages in the reproductive cycle of a Pine.
Where to collect a Conifer branch with conesMost of the conifers are evergreen plants and many produce woody cones that persist on the tree for long periods of time. For these reasons, you should have little difficulty locating a variety of different Conifers on the Kean University campus.
Although Pines are among the most common conifers in our area, there are very few pines on campus, and it is not easy to collect branches with cones from those we do have. If you read lab exercise 14 you will note that locations are mentioned for some deciduous conifers ( Metasequoia, Larch). You may elect to collect from one of these trees even if the leaves have dropped. If you do so, try to bring a sample of the fallen foliage with you.
The larch tree directly outside of the Biology Office usually has cones that are easy to reach and that can be cut without damaging the appearance of the tree.
Whatever you collect, take only a small sample and please use proper pruning techniques when collecting your specimen. Do not collect specimens from private property without receiving permission from the owner.
Prepare in advance by looking at the examples on the website, illustrations in your text, and illustrations in other reference books.
Assignment for Laboratory Exercise 14 - Gymnosperms
1. Collect and bring to laboratory a Conifer branch with cones.
Display your specimen at your desk.
2. Examine the materials on display in the room. These will
include living and preserved specimens representing
diversity of Gymnosperms; type specimens of the Divisions
Ginkgophyta (Maidenhair Tree), Cycadophyta (Cycads), and
Pinophyta (Conifers); and living specimens and prepared
slides to illustrate the reproductive pattern of Pine.
3. Learn the major characteristics of the Divisions
Ginkgophyta, Cycadophyta and Pinophyta. Use Ginkgo biloba
(Cycadophyta), Zamia (Cycadophyta) and Pinus (Pinophyta)
to represent these divisions.
4. Examine the vegetative characteristics of Pine. Dissect a
vegetative bud longitudinally and observe next year's stems
with pine needles. Examine a prepared section of a pine leaf
(Pine leaf, c.s.).
5. Dissect fresh female cones to observe ovules (1st year cones)
and seeds (2nd or 3rd year cones) of Pine. Observe microsporangia
and pollen (microgametophytes) as well as megasporangia and
megagametophytes in prepared slides of Pine.
6. Label the Pine diagrams (Figure 14.5 and 14.6) and color them
as directed on page 14-2.
7. Prepare for a quiz.