Botany Lab Help

BIO 2500 Principles of Botany - Kean University, Union, NJ

LAB 4 STEMS

updated August 11, 2003
About this site Links Quiz Assignment

GENERAL
Stems links with descriptions Stem Structure Botany - Virtual Library
Plant Structure Plant Morphology Vegetable Images
Plant Images Bulbs & Rooting Structures Definitions and illustrations Internet Directory
bean-  seedling with labels Plant physiology
 
DIVERSITY AND ADAPTATIONS
Twiner Tendrils - grape - photo Thorns   Honey Locust
Stolons / Runners Grass Cladode/Cladophyll Asparagus - foliage Storage Stems - Google
Strawberry begonia  Cladophyll of Ruscus cladode   Stem modifications - diagrams
 Modified stems - Modified stems - Google search engine images
BELOW GROUND MODIFICATIONS
Bulb l.s. onion  Corm Gladiolus Tuber Potato
Rhizome Iris  Modified stems and roots  Modified stems
 
STEM CROPS
Potato   potato Ginger Licorice
Kohlrabi Jerusalem Artichoke 
Bamboo shoot Asparagus Sugar cane 
Garlic, Leek, etc. Maple sap  - The process Poi (Taro)  -  Taro- foliage
Cinnamon    
 
SHOOT TIP
Coleus stem tip Diagram - tip apical meristem - Google
apical meristem - stem Google . .
 
MONOCOT TISSUES
Corn Stem - labels Corn Stem Vascular bundle  Monocotyledons
Vascular elements  Zea mays Corn - How a corn plant develops  Corn- early development diagram
Diagram stem 
+ tissues
apical meristem corn - images
 
DICOT TISSUES
Sunflower x.s. stem Sunflower - freehand  Sunflower young - labels 
Sunflower - the stem Sunflower - t.s. vascular bundle (stem)
Medicago stem labeled  Diagram alfalfa  cells and tissues
   stem dicot stem - shoot primary growth plant tissues and cell types 
Helianthus - Google results  Sunflower-Flash click part Slides - t.s. older stem
**Coleus - nice! 
free hand sections
 



Lab Exercise 4

BIO 2500 Principles of Botany - Kean University, Union, NJ

STEMS

I selected links with images and information related closely to the observations described in lab Exercise 4 (Plant Stems) of your botany lab manual. Preview these resources as you prepare for the laboratory exercise and review these resources as you write your lab reports and study for tests.

 One section in the beginning of lab samples the diversity of plant stems and a second section illustrates some stems of economic importance. However, emphasis of today's laboratory is external stem structure and internal stem anatomy (tissues and cell types).

Focus your attention on identifying tissues by their location, cell types and characteristic appearance. Visualize how sections of stems would be positioned in the intact stem, and try to relate transverse (c.s.) with longitidinal sections. Learn to distinguish between (1) monocot and dicot stems, (2) young, mature, and woody stems and contrast stems with the roots that you studied last week.

 I will allow you to work mostly on your own in this lab period, but I will be available to help you locate or interpret any of the structures mentioned in the laboratory exercise. I will have numerous illustrations from reference books available to assist you in your study of stems. As you make your observations you might quiz yourself by seeing if you would be able to locate the following items and show them to me.

  1. Bundle Cap
  2. Collenchyma
  3. Leaf gap
  4. Pith ray
  5. Sieve plate
  6. Tracheid
  7. Tunica
  8. Vessel element showing pore

I. DIVERSITY AND ADAPTATIONS OF STEMS

- links to stem types illustrate some of the diversity and adaptations mentioned in the lab manual

II. STEMS OF ECONOMIC PLANTS - STEM CROPS

- links to stem types illustrate many of the stem crops mentioned in the lab manual

III. EXTERNAL STRUCTURE OF HERBACEOUS STEMS

1. Sunflower - These are the plants you started in lab 1
2. Coleus - one link under shoot tip shows a view of a Coleus plant
3. Corn - you may wish to review the links to corn in lab 1

IV. INTERNAL STEM STRUCTURE

A. Herbaceous Dicot Stems

1. Fresh Material - Dye Movement in Sunflower Stem
2. Prepared slides - Herbaceous Stems
a. Sunflower (t.s.) - links illustrate this stem at different magnifications
b. Cucurbita (l.s.) - nice material for studying phloem (bundles have phloem both inside and outside of the xylem

B. Herbaceous Monocot Stem (Zea mays)

1. Fresh Material - Corn Stem
2. Prepared Slides - Corn Stem - links show corn stems at various magnifications

V. Record of Cell Types

Complete the table of cell types in the lab manual based on your own observations

VI. Buds, Growing Points of Shoots

1. Coleus Stem Tip -- Fresh Material
2. Coleus Stem Tip - Prepared Slide (l.s.) - links show sections of stem tip and apical meristem

Assignment

 Assignment for Laboratory Exercise 4 - Stems

1.   Examine the materials on display in the room. These will
     include living and preserved plants, prepared slides, wall
     charts and illustrations from a variety of books and other
     sources.

2.   Observe the demonstrations which illustrate diversity of
     adaptations of stems. Complete Table 4.1 Adaptations of
     Stems.

3.   Observe the demonstrations which illustrate selected stems
     of economic value. Add your notes and comments to Table 4.2
     Stems of Economic Crops.

4.   Diagram and label a sunflower shoot (Page 4-7).

5.   Complete Table 4.3 Comparison of Stems of Sunflower, Coleus
     and Corn.

6.   Observe fresh mounts and prepared slides of Sunflower and
     Corn and Cucurbita. Label Fig. 4.2 Transverse Section of Sunflower
     Stem, 4.3 Vascular Bundle of Sunflower Stem, 4.5 Transverse Section of
     Corn Stem, and 4.6 Vascular Bundle of Corn.

7.   Draw cell types to complete Table 4.4 Cell Types Found in
     Herbaceous Stems

8.   Sketch and label the appearance of terminal and axillary
     buds of Coleus as seen with the dissecting microscope (Page 4-20).

9.   Enhance and label Figure 4.7 Coleus Stem Tip (m.l.s. an t.s.).

10.  Compare Table 4.5 Selected Comparisons of Stems and roots of
     Monocots and Dicots.

11.   Prepare for a laboratory quiz to be given next week in lab.