Lab 10: The Flowering Plants

Structure of Flowers and Fruits

updated July 31, 2002
Flowering Plants General   links Botany - Kean
Flowers Flower Slides Fruits
Snapdragon
Gladiolus
Lily Fruit types
Images
  Meiosis  
Quiz Questions Assignment
Flowering Plants  -- AngiospermsDivision = Anthophyta
One of the main characteristics of higher plants is that they reproduce by means of seeds. There are two major groups of seed-producing plants: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. The Gymnosperms include the common cone-bearing evergreens such as pine, spruce, and fir, in which the seeds are naked and not enclosed within fruits. The Angiosperms or flowering plants have seeds covered by or enclosed within the fruit.

The characteristic reproductive structures of the Angiosperms are the flowers. Morphologically, a flower represents a highly modified stem which bears specialized leaves forming the so-called floral organs. There is wide variation among flowers of different plants with respect to the kinds, numbers, size, form, and arrangement of the floral organs. Some of the floral organs later develop into fruit. There is as much variety in the types of fruits as in the flowers from which they are produced.

In this exercise you will examine the parts of flowers and some of the different types of fruits that are produced by flowering plants.


GENERAL INFORMATION
Angiosperm Life Cycle - links to labeled images Angiosperms Reproduction and Life Cycle Plant anatomy
Flowering Plant Reproduction   Angiosperm Plant anatomy II  
 
FLOWERS
Reproductive Characters Illustrated guide to basic floral terms Parts of a Flower Illustrated glossary Flower structure
Reproductive Characters Flowers Profiles Anthophyta


Fertilization, Seed and Fruit Development

The pollen, or male gametophyte (gamete-producing plant ) and the ovule, or female gametophyte, represent the sexual generation in the life-cycle of the flowering plant. The pollen may be transferred to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower of the same species. In the former case the process is called self-pollination, in the latter case, cross-pollination.

On the stigma, the pollen germinates , and produces the male gametes which are transported to the ovule in a pollen tube. One of these male gametes fuses with the female gamete within the ovule. This fusion, called fertilization, marks the beginning of the development of the embryo plant.

The tissues of the ovule surrounding the embryo form the seed, while the tissues of the ovary, sometimes with some of the surrounding structures, form the fruit. The fruit is the ripened ovary (ovaries) with the enclosed seeds, if any, and in some cases may include other parts of the parent flower. The characteristics of the fruit are thus closely related to the characteristic of the flower (or flowers), and especially the ovary (or ovaries) from which it was produced.
 
 
 
 

 

FLOWER STRUCTURE AND ANATOMY

SNAPDRAGON

Snapdragon U. Wisconsin - many 
excellent images

Snapdragon flower Floral Diagram 
+ Many Detailed images of flower 
at various ages 

Snapdragon
Snapdragon - Google search engine images
Antirrhinum -  Google search engine images

GLADIOLUS

Gladiolus Infloresence

Gladiolus Flower

Gladiolus Google search engine images

Gladiolus Fast search engine images

Three stamens +
style with three stigmas
 

 
LILY
Lily infloresence buds and flowers
Lily - life cycle with images
Lilium -  U. Wisconsin - many great images
Lilium - flower - Lilium - life cycle images
Flowering plant reproduction-
images 
Lily bud x.s. Lily x.s. bud - labels Lily Floral diagram
 Lilium - 6 images (anthers, ovule - megasporocyte, 2nd div, 4 nucleate) 
MICROSPOROGENESIS/MICROGAMETOPHYTE
Lily - androecium Microsporocytes Lily anther -young x.s.
Meiosis I - Lily anther
Lily Meiosis / Microsporogenesis - stages with labels
Early Prophase I - Lily anther
Prophase I - Lily anther
Metaphase I - Lily anther
Anaphase I - Lily anther
Telophase I - Lily anther
Prophase II - Lily anther
Metaphase II - Lily anther
Anaphase II - Lily anther
Telophase II  - Lily anther
Mature anther - lily Lily x.s. anther, tapetum, spores Lily anther tetrads of microspores
anther
dehiscence -   try other values 
Pollen sac
Pollen in anther
 Pollen
Lily Pollen grains - labels
pollen petunia 3-D reconstruction of optical sections
POLLINATION
Pollination 
lily pollen  - Google search engine images
 pollen tube growth diagram
 
MEGASPOROGENESIS / MEGAGAMETOPHYTE
Lily - gynoecium UWisconsin Lily - x.s. ovary showing ovules Lily - Ovule -labels 
bud - lily Lily embryo sac  - 4 nucleate
Lily embryo sac - dividing nuclei
 Lily - mature embryo sac
Lily Megagametophyte - labels Lily - Embryo sac (8 nucleate)
 
DOUBLE FERTILIZATION
  Lily double fertilization  diagram - double fertilization
 
EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT
Capsella flower,fruit,embryo Capsella embryo (stages) Capsella fruits
 Capsella - ovule + embryo
 
SEEDS / SEEDLINGS
corn Corn "seed" l.s. grain  - no labels
- detail - no labels
 Corn seedlings 
Bean seed
Bean seed opened showing embryo
bean seed and seedlings - composite Bean seedlings
 
MEIOSIS
 
General  meiosis Meiosis tutorial - illustrated animation
Animation GIF - of meiosis     animation animation
Plant  Meiosis Meiosis - beads, Sordaria, Lily 
U. Wisconsin
Meiosis visualizing 
centromeres: Lilium
Meiosis Meiosis I / mitosis animation
Meiosis II animation 
Meiosis link to quicktime movie diagram of meiosis  

Fruit Types

The following broad scheme of classification of fruits, which is based on simple, easily observable but superficial characteristics, is artificial; that is, different plants that happen to have the same type of fruit according to this classification are not necessarily related closely.