|Flowering Plants||General links||Botany - Kean|
Flowering Plants -- AngiospermsDivision = Anthophyta
One of the main characteristics of higher plants is that they reproduce by means of seeds. There are two major groups of seed-producing plants: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. The Gymnosperms include the common cone-bearing evergreens such as pine, spruce, and fir, in which the seeds are naked and not enclosed within fruits. The Angiosperms or flowering plants have seeds covered by or enclosed within the fruit.
The characteristic reproductive structures of the Angiosperms are the flowers. Morphologically, a flower represents a highly modified stem which bears specialized leaves forming the so-called floral organs. There is wide variation among flowers of different plants with respect to the kinds, numbers, size, form, and arrangement of the floral organs. Some of the floral organs later develop into fruit. There is as much variety in the types of fruits as in the flowers from which they are produced.
In this exercise you will examine the parts of flowers and some of the different types of fruits that are produced by flowering plants.
Angiosperm Life Cycle - links to labeled images Angiosperms Reproduction and Life Cycle Plant anatomy Flowering Plant Reproduction Angiosperm Plant anatomy II FLOWERS Reproductive Characters Illustrated guide to basic floral terms Parts of a Flower Illustrated glossary Flower structure Reproductive Characters Flowers Profiles Anthophyta
Fertilization, Seed and Fruit Development
The pollen, or male gametophyte (gamete-producing plant ) and the ovule, or female gametophyte, represent the sexual generation in the life-cycle of the flowering plant. The pollen may be transferred to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower of the same species. In the former case the process is called self-pollination, in the latter case, cross-pollination.
On the stigma, the pollen germinates , and produces the male gametes which are transported to the ovule in a pollen tube. One of these male gametes fuses with the female gamete within the ovule. This fusion, called fertilization, marks the beginning of the development of the embryo plant.
The tissues of the ovule surrounding the embryo form the seed, while the tissues of the ovary, sometimes with some of the surrounding structures, form the fruit. The fruit is the ripened ovary (ovaries) with the enclosed seeds, if any, and in some cases may include other parts of the parent flower. The characteristics of the fruit are thus closely related to the characteristic of the flower (or flowers), and especially the ovary (or ovaries) from which it was produced.
FLOWER STRUCTURE AND ANATOMY
Snapdragon U. Wisconsin - many
Snapdragon flower Floral Diagram
+ Many Detailed images of flower
at various ages
Gladiolus Google search engine images
Gladiolus Fast search engine images
Three stamens +
style with three stigmas
LILY Lily infloresence buds and flowers
Lily - life cycle with images
Lilium - U. Wisconsin - many great images
Lilium - flower - Lilium - life cycle images
Flowering plant reproduction-
Lily bud x.s. Lily x.s. bud - labels Lily Floral diagram Lilium - 6 images (anthers, ovule - megasporocyte, 2nd div, 4 nucleate) MICROSPOROGENESIS/MICROGAMETOPHYTE Lily - androecium Microsporocytes Lily anther -young x.s.
Meiosis I - Lily anther
Lily Meiosis / Microsporogenesis - stages with labels Early Prophase I - Lily anther
Prophase I - Lily anther
Metaphase I - Lily anther
Anaphase I - Lily anther
Telophase I - Lily anther
Prophase II - Lily anther
Metaphase II - Lily anther
Anaphase II - Lily anther
Telophase II - Lily anther
Mature anther - lily Lily x.s. anther, tapetum, spores Lily anther tetrads of microspores anther
dehiscence - try other values
Pollen in anther
Lily Pollen grains - labels
pollen petunia 3-D reconstruction of optical sections POLLINATION Pollination
lily pollen - Google search engine images
pollen tube growth diagram MEGASPOROGENESIS / MEGAGAMETOPHYTE Lily - gynoecium UWisconsin Lily - x.s. ovary showing ovules Lily - Ovule -labels bud - lily Lily embryo sac - 4 nucleate
Lily embryo sac - dividing nuclei
Lily - mature embryo sac Lily Megagametophyte - labels Lily - Embryo sac (8 nucleate) DOUBLE FERTILIZATION Lily double fertilization diagram - double fertilization EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT Capsella flower,fruit,embryo Capsella embryo (stages) Capsella fruits Capsella - ovule + embryo SEEDS / SEEDLINGS corn Corn "seed" l.s. grain - no labels
- detail - no labels
Corn seedlings Bean seed
Bean seed opened showing embryo
bean seed and seedlings - composite Bean seedlings
MEIOSIS General meiosis Meiosis tutorial - illustrated animation Animation GIF - of meiosis animation animation Plant Meiosis Meiosis - beads, Sordaria, Lily
Meiosis Meiosis I / mitosis animation
Meiosis II animation
Meiosis link to quicktime movie diagram of meiosis
The following broad scheme of classification of fruits, which is based on simple, easily observable but superficial characteristics, is artificial; that is, different plants that happen to have the same type of fruit according to this classification are not necessarily related closely.
|Fruits - U. Wisconsin||fruits and nuts||Fruits and Seeds|
|FLOWER --- FRUITS|
|PEA||Garden Pea - pod + seed||Pea
diagram - labels
to fruit -
pea, tomato, citrus, pineapple, etc
|Snow Pea Pods|
|TOMATO||Fruit anatomy tomato||Flowers and Fruits|
|Tomato Fruit development||Tomato - fruit|
|APPLE||Apple Flowering branch||Apple
|infloresence||Apple Branch with fruit - diagram||Apple fruit (stem end)|
|dissected flower -||Apple fruit l.s.||McIntosh - fruit development
online poster !!